Also complex is the challenge of moving from the status of stranger to acquaintance. Functionalists then examine the relationship between the different parts of the structure, as a whole. Parent absence or poverty: Which matters more? Furthermore, functionalist theories tend to justify the sexual division of labour, and ignore gender. It, postulates that over generations, humans encountered obstacles to genetic success, and, that selection favoured those with brains suited to overcoming these problems (Alcock, 2001). to the one presented by mainstream migration theories and doctrine. Government policies, such as female, education, which are not directed at families, may yet have significant impacts on the, family. Subsequently, object relations theories, grew out of the writings of major psychological theorists such as Klein, Fairbairn, Winnicott, Kernberg and Kohut (see, for example Fairbairn 1953, Kernberg 1976, Klein 1952, Kohut, Object relations theories argue that family format, and maintain relationships. scholars in any particular culture tend to treat as universal are in fact culturally specific. r family formation have changed over time, ended family or kin grouping was a source of, contracts instead of family certification”, imperialist—taking over the study of other, cker on this point, although he never advocates, en altruistic parents will under-invest in the, her, unexpected ways. differences can lead to differing policy positions. the loss of their original family to a new. The final stage, “gender constancy” occurs around six years of age, and involves, an understanding of the constancy of gender across the life course (both, situation). In some cases, people cease to have emotional reactions to events, would normally trigger such a response, they have memory lapses and cannot account for, some of their actions, and they have difficulty “gathering their thoughts”, communicating these to other people. This altruism could increase the. The family, is also seen as the safety valve in which men exercise their frustration at their position in. Nuclear families are comprised of married partners and their offspring. The presumption is that it has a significant effect, as individuals, Under a system of dissolution by mutual consent, both parties would consent to a divorce. the baby boom, lasting from the 1940s to the 1970s, and baby bust, from the 1980s to the, present. Familiarity with these sorts of examples, unintended consequences and unimplemented programmes are a valuable counter to. Furthermore, the simple models and parsimonious assumptions of economics are, not intended to fully describe the world but to capture the most powerful explanatory, A further critique of economics is that it is, disciples (Lazear 2000). Table 3 presents data on the living arrangements of, The table shows that most older people live with their, spouse or live alone. enforce agreements than other, less formal arrangements (Lundberg and Pollak 1996). . apply only to a minority of children experiencing the separation of their parents. there were special obligations towards children including their rights to social protection. They fight in wars, invent new economic niches, and agitate for political power. contract and clear consequences for breach. Big differences in trait sorting (for example, intelligence, family, background, religion, race) also increase the probability of divorce (Becker. Wilkinson, Helen and Geoff Mulgan (1995) "Freedom's children." Belich (1996) labels the trend “the mothers’ mutiny”. London, Demos. universalistic claims of social theory, stressing instead multiplicity, difference, particularity, locality, temporality, and the “scattered and shifting character of contemporary social, by asking “Who speaks?” when knowledge is associated with power and claims to be, making “truthful” statements about the social world (Holmwood 2002). aspects of a kinship system evolve together in response to environmental conditions. The interpretation of behaviours such as, childbearing, marriage and divorce as active choices by maximising agents rather than, passive responses to social or cultural forces epitomises the economic approach (Pollak. Developmental psychology is concerned with the cognitive, emotional and social, development of individuals. in Antony Dnes and Robert Rowthorn, Dnes, Antony and Robert Rowthorn eds (2002), Draper, Patricia and Henry Harpending (1988) "A sociobiological perspective on the, development of human reproductive strategies." The, psychological and sociological literature suggests, sole motherhood and adverse outcomes. Evolutionary theory suggests that a. man’s reproductive success depends on the fertility of a wife, and the younger the wife, the more children she can bear and rear, so men have developed a taste for nubile, women (Buss 1994). The differential effects of infidelity are reflected in the lesser punishments, for men who kill their adulterous wives and their lovers in “crimes of. The introduction of equal employment opportunities for women, even coupled with, has not resulted in the elimination of differences between men and women in, employment. The emotions of mothers may have been shaped by the necessity of the, circumstances correlated with infanticide such as poverty, marital conflict and sole. Becker suggests that parents have altruistic, or deferential preferences, account for parental investment in children, However, others argue this is not necessary to, explain such behaviour and that paternalism is all that is required (Pollak 2002). None of the disciplines discussed recommend a, particular family structure. Center for, Kaplan, Elaine Bell (2000) "Using food as a metaphor for care: Middle-school kids talk, about family, school, and class relationships. . the party keenest to end the contract would bribe the other until equilibrium was reached. A cuckolded male cannot, be certain of his paternity of his wife’s children and may invest in rearing children that are, not his own, so female infidelity is a threat. It also, explains people’s need for identity and knowing who they are. However, to understand the, family more fully it is necessary to get beneath this assumption and distinguish the, incomes and consumption of different family, inputs (division of labour, energy, time), investment (in human capital and children) and, consumption (how outputs and resources are, contemporaneously and intertemporally (forgoi, Increasing returns from specialisation are a powerful force creating a division of labour in, the allocation of time and investments. Family systems therapy is based on Murray Bowen’s family systems theory, which holds that individuals are inseparable from their network of relationships. of predicatory variables (Gottman 1993b). Women, while men prefer younger women. Other family theories employed include feminist theory, symbolic interactionism, family development, phenomenology, family power, and exchange theory. This Bulletin features a family-strengthening strategy—brief strate-gic family therapy—that integrates theory with decades of research and practice at the University of Miami in an intensive, short-term, problem-focused intervention, generally lasting 3 months. There is general consensus that authoritative parenting is optimal, facilitating positive child development. in Jane Fishburne Collier and Sylvia Junko Yanagisako eds, Gender and kinship: Essays toward a unified analysis, Zahavi, A (1977) "The cost of honesty (further remarks on the handicap principle). : Linear regression models examined associations of norms and traditions to serve their, functions such... Effects of the family is common in girls and in turn will need scrutiny. Exists, families and about how people, use practices such as children. to maximise their,..., Rowthorn, Robert a Pollak ( 1996 ) includes this as an investment, contributing sperm and become structural... 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