A second consequence was that Americans realized that settlement was possible along the eastern part of the trail. In 1841, a small military and trading expedition departed from Austin, Texas for Santa Fe. In 1854, Jeb Stuart, George Custer and other graduates from West Point are posted to Kansas to help pacify the territory before railroad construction to Santa Fe can resume. Harriett Bidwell Shaw and her husband, Milton, a minister, traveled the trail in a wagon train in 1857. After Warfield headed toward the Rockies with a companion, McDaniel led a robbery in April 1843 (in present-day Rice County, Kansas) of a lightly manned Santa Fe Trail trading caravan. ], In 1825, the merchant Manuel Escudero of Chihuahua was commissioned by New Mexico governor Bartolome Baca to negotiate in Washington, DC for opening U.S. borders to traders from Mexico. [9], In 1835, Mexico City had sent Albino Pérez to govern the department of New Mexico as Jefe Politico (political chief or governor) and as commanding military officer. The trail was used to carry products from the central plains to the trail head towns St. Joseph and Independence, Missouri. The Santa Fe Trail divided into two main sections in New Mexico: the Cimarron Cutoff, and the Mountain Route. It also served as the 1846 U.S. invasion route of New Mexico during the Mexican-American war. West of Garden City in southwestern Kansas the trail splits into two branches. PO Box 728 In 1842, Colonel William A. Christy wrote Sam Houston, president of Texas, requesting support for an overthrow scheme by Charles Warfield dependent on armed forces. Santa Fe, NM Answer: The Santa Fe Trail was America's first commercial highway... Before its demise due to the completion of the Santa Fe railroad, the Santa Fe Trail served as a thoroughfare for countless traders, pioneers and America's military, and it played a crucial role in America's westward expansion. [14] After disarming these men, Captain Philip St. George Cooke allowed them to return to Texas.[9]. Katie Bowen traveled the Santa Fe Trail in 1851 with her army officer husband, Captain Isaac Bowen. [9] Snively planned to plunder Mexican merchant caravans on territory claimed by Texas, in retaliation for recent Texian executions and Mexican invasions, but his battalion was quickly arrested and disarmed by the US troops escorting the caravans. Segments of this trail in Missouri, Kansas, Oklahoma, and New Mexico are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Local merchants and citizens at the U.S. end of the Santa Fe Trail demanded justice and a return to the stable commerce which their economy depended on. Why was the Gold Rush important? If a storm developed, there was often no place to take shelter and the livestock could get spooked. [19] In fact, the Cimarron River was one of the only sources of water along this branch of the trail. They raided to gain a steady supply of horses to sell. This habitat disruption, on top of overhunting, contributed to the collapse of the species. Some traders used the so-called Mountain Route, which offered more dependable water but required an arduous trip over Raton Pass. Within two years, rails had been laid all the way across central Kansas, and by 1873, two different rail lines reached from eastern Kansas all the way into Colorado. Cargo mule trains were run from Fort Bernard to the Santa Fe Trail. The section of the trail between Independence and Olathe was also used by immigrants on the California and Oregon Trails, which branched off to the northwest near Gardner, Kansas. Remnants of the trail days can be seen at 21 historic landmarks, including nine National Historic Santa Fe Trail sites. In February 1843, Colonel Jacob Snively had received a commission to intercept Mexican caravans along the Santa Fe Trail, similar to that received by Warfield the year prior. Commercial freighting along the trail boomed to unheard-of levels, including considerable military freight hauling to supply the southwestern forts. Santa Fe Trail Route What is the Santa Fe Trail? Learn more about the people that have had a significant presence and impact during the period of the Santa Fe Trail. It connects El Monte to Westward Expansion after the Mexican-American War of 1846-48, firmly lodging the city within the U.S. nation-state and cutting off anything or anyone that came before the first American families in El Monte in the 19th century. The Santa Fe Trail was a transportation route opened by the Spaniards at the end of the 18th century. Ruts in the earth made from the trail are still visible in several locations (Ralph's Ruts are visible in aerial photos at (.mw-parser-output .geo-default,.mw-parser-output .geo-dms,.mw-parser-output .geo-dec{display:inline}.mw-parser-output .geo-nondefault,.mw-parser-output .geo-multi-punct{display:none}.mw-parser-output .longitude,.mw-parser-output .latitude{white-space:nowrap}38°21′35″N 98°25′20″W / 38.35959264°N 98.42225502°W / 38.35959264; -98.42225502). The Santa Fe Trail began as a commercial venture when the quickly growing population in Santa Fe needed goods and services. From 1610, when the Spanish founded the city of Santa Fe, to the 1860s, when the railroad brought unprecedented changes: here is the full, fascinating story of the great Santa Fe Trail which ran between Missouri and Kansas and New Mexico--a lifeline to and from the Southwest for more than two centuries. List two economic or political consequences of the Santa Fe Trail. [12][13], Warfield was reportedly unaware of the crime. New Mexico governor Manuel Armijo led Mexican troops out of Santa Fe to protect incoming caravans. The Santa Fe Trail, stretching 1,200 miles from Franklin, Missouri to Santa Fe, New Mexico, was one of America’s great trading routes. Branches of the trail followed both sides of the river upstream to Dodge City and Garden City. The eastern end of the trail was in the central Missouri town of Franklin on the north bank of the Missouri River. It was also called as The Great Prairie Highway for 60 years connecting economies of different territories through trading. Take a look at places along the Trail. West of Franklin, the trail crossed the Missouri near Arrow Rock, after which it followed roughly the route of present-day U.S. Route 24. And so the Santa Fe trail was born which lasted for 58 years and brought what is now the southwestern part of the US to the attention of settlers, traders and businessmen. Most, however, used the Cimarron Route, which was shorter and faster but required knowledge of where the route’s scarce water supplies were located. Settlers seeking the opportunity to hold free land used wagon trains to follow various emigrant trails that branched off to points west. Route What were the three main items traded through the Santa Fe Trail? The immigrants began to settle North America and the region west of Great Plains. In a sense, after World War I the trail was reborn; by the 1920s it gradually became paved automobile roads. Then, in February 1880, the railroad reached Santa Fe, and the trail faded into history. Pioneered in 1821 by William Becknell, who departed from the Boonslick region along the Missouri River, the trail served as a vital commercial highway until 1880, when the railroad arrived in Santa Fe. The Santa Fe Trail was a 19th-century transportation route through central North America that connected Franklin, The natural weather was and is continental: very hot and dry summers, coupled with long and bitterly cold winters. Interested in learning more or planning a visit? Why was the Santa Fe Trail Important? The earlier Fort and the identity of its traders are less certain; they may have been independents and not employees of the large fur companies. The winner of that competition, the Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe Railroad, reached the top of Raton Pass in late 1878. Though the Mountain Route of the Santa Fe Trail presented some problems, especially the crossing over Raton Pass, it most definitely had its advantages, including the fact that it had plenty of water and was relatively safe from Indian attacks. Rattlesnakes often posed a threat, and many people died due to snakebites. The importance and significance of the Santa Fe Trail was: ● Trade via the route brought much needed silver to the United States ● The trail tied the New Mexican Southwest economically to the rest of the U.S. and hastened American infiltration of the region From Olathe, the trail passed through the towns of Baldwin City, Burlingame, and Council Grove, then swung west of McPherson to the town of Lyons. Its major market in Missouri was St. Louis, with its port on the Mississippi River. The Santa Fe Trail was a 19th-century transportation route that connected Franklin, Missouri with Santa Fe, New Mexico. Other participating suspects arrested by the US were convicted and imprisoned. From 1821 until 1846, the Santa Fe Trail was a two-way international commercial highway used by both Mexican and American traders. “Council Grove was the most important stop on the Santa Fe Trail,” says Don Cress, who founded the local chapter of the Santa Fe Trail Association. 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