Besides in Brazil, ToCV has also been reported from potatoes in Spain (Fortes and Navas-Castillo 2012) and identified in India associated with leaf-roll disease (CIP, unpublished), and thus the virus does seem to have recurring opportunities to infect potatoes worldwide where conditions are appropriate and it may only be a matter of time until an adaptive mutation appears for it to establish as a significant potato pathogen. We intend to develop potato varieties that have durable resistance to late blight through genetic transformation with R genes from wild Solanum species. This sce-, nario has been a serious sanitary problem for potato production in Brazil, as it is, strongly correlated withthe successive increase of PVY reservoir, fa. When seedlings from progeny tubers of plants that were inoculated with PVY and grown in a greenhouse at >30°C in the daytime were examined by ELISA and IC‐RT‐PCR, PVY was not detected in cultivars carrying Rychc. Plant Dis 96:43–54. infecting potatoes in Peru (de Souza etal. Ann. The collateral activities of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated nuclease Cas systems such as Cas12 and Cas14 (which act on ssDNA) and Cas13 (which acts on ssRNA) have recently been exploited to develop highly sensitive, specific, and rapid detection platforms. A review. However, they have a high rate of non-specific amplification and other drawbacks. The association of a geminivirus with potato apical leaf curl disease, ) reported above 10% incidence of CMV in potato grown in Punjab, (30%), and PVM (30%). Ghorai et al. 2000). Details about. Ann Appl Biol 103:449–454. However, it has not, as yet, been found infecting potatoes in T, virus in south-west Australia. PVP cluster diverged from PVS 5–7000years ago. Howe, monitoring is because some countries that export seed potatoes to Brazil have high. Therefore, they were never considered important as causing damage to this crop. (2017) reported above 10% incidence of CMV in potato grown in Punjab. Potato J 39:81–83, Qiu CL, Zhang ZX, Li SF, Bai YJ, Liu SW, Fan GQ, Gao YL, Zhang W, Zhang S, Lu WH, Lü DQ (2016) Occurrence and molecular characterization of Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) isolates from potato plants in North China. genome sequence of Potato leafroll virus isolates infecting potato in the different geographi-, PCR detection of geminivirus associated with potato apical leaf curl disease in India. more favorable conditions for thrips to thri, Geographical location and climate seem to create the conditions where different, potato viruses get established and spread over the years. Unknowingly, potato virus Y (PVY) was also introduced through trade in infected potato tubers, and it has become the most important viral pathogen of potato. tive in controlling virus infection under eld conditions. impact at the biosecurity, commercial, regulatory, and scientific levels. Other treatments showed yield losses, especially the treatments under 7 days, in which plants did not fully recover. mitted. Hortic Bras 35:335–342. The most frequently detected viruses have consistently been contact-transmitted with PVX (30–82% incidence) and PVS (20–50%) being the commonest followed by APMoV (4–15%) and APLV (2–6%). Arq Inst Biol 15:307–330, Nyalugwe EP, Wilson CR, Coutts BA, Jones RAC (2012) Biological properties of potato virus X in potato: effects of mixed infection with Potato virus S and resistance phenotypes in cultivars from three continents. In the last decade, (2000–2010) relaxation of seed potato regulations concerning isolation from com-, mercial potato crops in two Australian states (V. upsurge in the incidence of common potato viruses in high grade seed potatoes. Infection results in significant decrease in size and number of tubers. Producing potato seed from tuber sprouts in Brazil. ple viruses into specic potato varieties (Chung etal. Viruses are among the most significant biotic constraints in potato production. 2019). JPhytopathol 161(2):120–124, Almasi MA, Manesh ME, Jafary H, Dehabadi SMH (2013) V, virus by loop-mediated isothermal amplication of DNA with the GeneFinder™ dye. Potato Res 54(3):253, Glais L, Bellstedt DU, Lacomme C (2017) Diversity, characterisation and classification of PVY, Potato virus Y: biodiversity, pathogenicity, epidemiology and management. Rotenberg D, Jacobson AL, Schneweis DJ, Whitfield AE (2015) Thrips transmission of tospoviruses. Potato J 39:81–83, DQ (2016) Occurrence and molecular characterization of Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd), isolates from potato plants in North China. Learning more about those factors might also help to design means for control of PMTV. Transgenic approaches can readily incorporate resistance to multiple viruses into specific potato varieties (Chung et al. 2012). Biol. Modeling approaches have similarly indicated that the approach of selecting healthy plants for seed production can be as effective as certified seed in maintaining seed quality (Thomas-Sharma et al. Some strains of Potato virus X produce no visible symptoms, although yields may be reduced 15 percent or more when compared to virus-free plants. the beginning of potato cultivation in Brazil, always been the most important viral agent associated with seed-potato tuber degen-, viruses in Brazil lasted until the mid-1990s, when two new strains of PVY were, introduced, nearly simultaneously, through seeds imported from countries where, major cause of rapid seed-potato degeneration, overtaking the historical importance, tolerance limits for viruses of the Federal Brazilian seed-potato tuber production-, past. 2010). Additional resistance genes to PVA, PVV, PVS and PVM have also been identified (Palukaitis 2012) and mapped in potatoes but have to date not been widely utilized due to the considered limited importance of these viruses. In a survey performed, Although there have been no reports of whitey-transmitted viruses, whiteies, can be abundant in potato crops in some locations during some seasons and because, potatoes are often grown in close proximity to other vegetables there is a clear risk, of transfer and possibly emergence of whitey-transmitted viruses as has already, There are some ten viruses infecting potatoes and causing signicant yield losses in, transmitted but occurs only in a few cultiv, which are solely contact-transmitted, and PMTV and TR, borne and mainly cause problems in the northern more cooler countries of the con-, cially its new necrogenic strains which often cause mild foliar symptoms that are, often difcult to see in eld inspections and tend to be more efciently aphid trans-. tiplied in more aphid vector prone areas, especially in developed countries. There is also an urgent need to explore possibilities of seed production in nontraditional areas using modern techniques (Singh et al. (, necrosis incidence was recorded up to 90% in some parts of Madhya Pradesh and, Rajasthan and up to 50% in Pant nagar. Trade in these seeds represents a route for the viroids to invade new regions, but the magnitude of this hazard has not been adequately investigated. 2013). In China, on average, losses of over 20% due to sweet potato virus diseases (SPVDs) are observed (Gao, Gong, & Zhang, 2000), mainly due to Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV) and Sweet potato latent virus (SPLV). Because they threaten food security, all are cause for considerable concern for humanity. Pitman, London, pp 89–107, Jones RAC (2014) Virus disease problems facing potato industries worldwide: viruses found, climate change implications, rationalizing virus strain nomenclature and addressing the Potato virus Y issue. When just one virus is present, often no symptoms are seen. Late blight (Phytophthora infestans) was the primary biotic constraint affecting plants before flowering with an average severity of 24%. This traditional and prevalent virus problem started to decline, coincidently in space and time with the introduction and fast outbreak of new PVY strains detailed below. Relying solely on visual inspections is cheaper but leads to selection of viral strains that show few foliar symptoms, as occurred with some strains of PVY. s can be achieved. Mol Plant-Microbe Interact 26:297–305, Treder K, Chołuj J, Zacharzewska B, Babujee L, Mielczarek M, Burzyński A, Rakotondrafara AM (2018) Optimization of a magnetic capture RT-LAMP assay for fast and real-time detection of potato virus Y and differentiation of N and O serotypes. Agata. Over a 5-year period, incidence of PVYO dropped from 63 to 7% of the PVY population (Funke et al. 2014). Its prevalence in plantings at lower altitudes in the Andes reflects the restriction of its whitefly vector to warmer conditions (Jones 2016, references therein). And PVM are all aphid-transmitted since at least the 1940s, although the of. Potato yield of achaparramieto rugoso in eld gro small part of the genus,... Cultivated in Peru imported by Brazil as compared to the low availability of virus-free seed tubers effective... CertiCation, than 18 % with “ Bintje ” inoculated these iso-, lates to potato... (, Solanum apical leaf curl disease of potato virus Y article strains.! Certain areas such as “ net necrosis disease management relies mostly on the throughout. To transmit by the size of the PVY population ( Funke et al roll in. And Bolivia new PVX-resistant cultivars potato cultivars and the de, 18.75 and 13.61 %,.! Framework, and PVM also infect potato in India seen with that technique ( Souza-Dias et al occurs the. 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