The play earned Tolstoy his third Stalin Prize. It was probably Mayakovsky who finally persuaded him to take the crucial step in Berlin, together with overtures from members of the Soviet diplomatic mission. During the Nuremberg Trials of Nazi war criminals, Soviet prosecutors recognized his work in the investigation of atrocities committed in the Stavropol region. During World War II he was a prolific author of patriotic articles and also composed his two-part play Ivan the Terrible (1943), a dramatic apologia for the pathologically cruel tsar. After a trip to Italy in the summer of 1907, Aleksei left his horrified wife and infant son and began a common law marriage with Sophia. Born in Nikolayevsk, Samara, Aleksey was a distant relation of Leo Tolstoy. His friend Ilya Ehrenburg wrote once that Tolstoy would do anything for a quiet life, and his personal philosophy rose no higher than this confessio vitae, uttered when an exile in Paris: 'I only know this: the thing that I loathe most of all is walking in town with empty pockets, looking in shop windows without the possibility of buying anything – that's real torture for me.' The Tolstoys were no exception amid the general misery. Aleksey Nikolayevich Tolstoy (Russian: Алексе́й Никола́евич Толсто́й; 10 January 1883 [O.S. Born into the Russian nobility, he was distantly related to Leo Tolstoy and, on his mother's side, to Ivan Turgenev. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). [citation needed] Aleksei, however, was not put off. Descended from illustrious aristocratic families on both sides, Aleksey was a distant cousin of the novelist Lev Tolstoy. Aleksey was the son of Count Nikolay Alexandrovich Tolstoy (1849–1900) and Alexandra Leontievna Turgeneva (1854–1906). Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Thường được gọi vui là Đồng chí Bá tước, ông là một trong những nhân vật tiêu biểu của dòng văn học Liên Xô giai đoạn trước và trong Thế chiến II. [18], George Orwell branded Tolstoy, along with contemporary Ilya Ehrenburg, as a “literary prostitute” whose freedom of expression was denied by Soviet totalitarianism. The city was crowded with Russian refugees of every type and class. At first despising the Bolsheviks, Aleksei once vowed to put out the eyes of Vladimir Lenin and Leon Trotsky if they fell into his hands. It was the latter writer who awakened the most enthusiasm in him. Aleksey Nikolayevich Tolstoy (10 January 1883 – 23 February 1945), nicknamed the Comrade Count, was a Russian and Soviet writer who wrote in many genres, but specialized in science fiction and in historical novels.. For the trilogy and for his long unfinished historical novel Pyotr I (1929–45; Peter the First, 1956), he received Stalin prizes. Publication date 1923 Topics Townsend, R. S. Publisher New York, Boni and Liveright Collection oliverwendellholmeslibrary; phillipsacademy; americana Digitizing sponsor Abbot Academy Fund Contributor Phillips Academy, Oliver Wendell Holmes Library Language Peter the First by Tolstoy, Aleksey Nikolayevich and a great selection of related books, art and collectibles available now at AbeBooks.com. In his farewell editorial printed in Nakanune, Aleksei wrote, I am leaving with my family for the homeland forever. After years of struggle, he had begun to achieve artistic recognition and material success, while here he was worse off than he had been in 1908, when he had only a hundred rubles in the world. [1], Due in part to their rejection by both the Russian nobility and the Church, Aleksei Bostrom and Alexandra Tolstoy raised Aleksei in a staunchly atheistic and anti-monarchist environment. cit. Emigration can kill any author within two or three years.' August 24] 1817 – October 10 [O.S. Tolstoy, Aleksey Nikolayevich, graf, 1883-1945 Title ; Close. He penned several books for children, starting with Nikita's Childhood, a memorable account of his early years (the book is sometimes mistakenly believed to be about his son, Nikita; in truth, however, he only used the name because it was his favorite – and he would later give it to his eldest son). This document was submitted to the Tribunal by me earlier as Exhibit Number USSR-1 (Document USSR-1). Click the link for more information. Earned int. Consisting of Sestry (1920–21; “Sisters”), Vosemnadtsaty god (1927–28; “The Year 1918”), and Khmuroe utro (1940–41; “A Gloomy Morning”), it is a study of Russian intellectuals converted to the Bolshevik cause during the Civil War. Aleksey Konstantinovich also wrote many books: Prince Serebrenni, The Death of Ivan the Terrible, Tsar Fyodor Ioannovich, and Tsar Boris. Aleksei was instantly smitten and, desiring to protect his sister's reputation, Leo Dymshits immediately fled with her back to St Petersburg. [13] Tolstoy became a full member of the USSR Academy of Sciences in 1939. it at CG.His first sym. When strings were eventually pulled to arrange his return, he celebrated it by provoking a fellow-noble to a duel. On a more prosaic note it was clear that Mayakovsky and artists like him enjoyed a comfortable standard of life, unaffected by the appalling tribulations suffered by ordinary Russians.[12]. He knew that he would soon be going home. Aleksey Nikolayevich Tolstoy (Russian: Алексе́й Никола́евич Толсто́й; 10 January 1883 O.S. reputation as pianist and in 1923 wrote ballet, Ajanta's Frescoes, for Pavlova, who prod. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Science fiction, a form of fiction that deals principally with the impact of actual or imagined science upon society or individuals. [citation needed], After returning to St. Petersburg from their love-nest, the young couple took the well trodden path to the Russian Mecca, Paris. Kniga Pervaja, Paperback by Tolstoy, Aleksey Nikolayevich, ISBN 1727247094, ISBN-13 9781727247091, Brand New, Free shipping in the US (Paris 1927) caused protests because of its dissonance. After the defeat of Wrangel's Army in 1920, the Tolstoys were evacuated from Odessa and settled in Paris as White emigres. [citation needed], As with so many Russian children at that time, little Alexei picked up his earliest education at home. Click the link for more information. The former spawned a pioneering sci-fi movie in 1924. According to biographers, this in itself is a testimony to Alexei's paternity. That he resented the unjust discrepancy is attested by his adoption of his true surname.[3]. He was popular with the students, who elected him to their committees. He surpassed his less able colleagues in the art of glorifying Stalin by drawing subtle analogies between the latter and Peter the Great. Mariana, however, came to live with her father two years later. In August, he wrote to his stepfather that his continued success in writing had earned him extraordinary acclaim among the Paris Russians. His supernatural short story, Count Cagliostro, reportedly inspired the 1984 film Formula of Love. Although hopelessly in love, Sophia was well aware that they were both still married to other people. Tcherepnin, Alexander (Nikolayevich) (b St Petersburg, 1899; d Paris, 1977).Russ.-born composer and pianist (Amer. Out on a stroll, Alexei said significantly, 'I feel that this winter you're going to leave me.' Aleksey Nikolayevich Tolstoy was a prominent Soviet writer and public figure, who descended from Tolstoy family. 29 December 1882] — 23 February 1945), nicknamed the Comrade Count, was a Russian and Soviet writer who wrote in many genres but specialized in science fiction and historical novels. 1958), son of Nikolay Tcherepnin.Went to Paris 1921. Tolstoy, Aleksey Nikolayevich (tŏl`stoi, Rus. Updates? His attention was perfunctory, and in his earliest years it was his imagination and dreams which absorbed his energy. During this time he wrote one of his finest works, Detstvo Nikity (1921; Nikita’s Childhood, 1945), a nostalgic, partly autobiographical study of a small boy’s life. Stories were read aloud by Tolstoy, Remizov, Lidin, Pilnyak, Sokolov-Mikitov. There Tolstoy came to know the poet Constantine Balmont, the painter Elizabeth Kruglikova, and the writers Ilya Ehrenburg and Maximilian Voloshin. Pin. Aleksey Nikolayevich Tolstoy (Russian: Алексе́й Никола́евич Толсто́й; 10 January 1883 [O.S. 29 December 1882] – 23 February 1945), nicknamed the Comrade Count, was a Russian and Soviet writer who wrote in many genres but specialized in science fiction and in historical novels. Eager to join the exciting throng of student life, he enrolled in a coaching establishment outside the city. Share. They would certainly have assured him as to the social status that an artist would enjoy in a society where the artist was for the first time freed from the degrading shackles of bourgeois patronage. cit. On holiday in the Crimea in the spring of 1914, Alexei became greatly drawn to a young ballerina, Margarita Kandaurov. We both responded enthusiastically."[6]. Tcherepnin, Alexander (Nikolayevich) (b St Petersburg, 1899; d Paris, 1977).Russ.-born composer and pianist (Amer. Namely, Count Aleksey Konstantinovich Tolstoy died in 1875, at the age of 58. Within a year the retired hussar had been exiled to Kostroma for insulting the Governor of Samara. He wrote in many genres but mainly specialized in science fiction and historical novels. One may question this. An English translation of the trilogy appeared in 1946 under the title The Road to Calvary (1946). There was a place in Berlin that reminded one of Noah's Ark, where the clean and unclean met peacefully; it was called the House of Arts and was just a common German café where Russian writers gathered on Fridays. While living in France, Aleksei began writing a lengthy historical novel titled, The Road to Calvary, which tracked the period from 1914 to 1919 including the Russian Civil War. In 1937, Tolstoy was elected to the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union. Therefore, she suggested that Aleksei take a trip abroad with his wife before coming to a final decision. [5], Aleksei and Sophia returned to Russia in the summer of 1910 and set up house in a flat along Nevsky Prospekt. The break with Sophia was as abrupt as it had been with Julia. See all formats and editions Hide other formats and editions. Genealogy profile for Alexey Nikolayevich Tolstoy. Even after learning the truth, he still considered Aleksey Bostrom his true father and refused ever to see Count Nikolai Tolstoy or his older siblings. The Revolution had come at just the wrong moment. There he met and married Alexandra Leontievna Turgenev, a lively girl of good family, but slender means. There is, therefore, nothing remarkable in the fact that this brilliant and faithful bard of Stalin was called upon to extol Pan-Slavism, if that is what his master wanted. There was no lie, betrayal, or indignity which he would not hasten to commit in order to fill those empty pockets, and in Stalin he found a worthy master. Writing in 1983, Nikolai Tolstoy commented, In fact, he never experienced the 'hard life' of which he wrote, and it seems certain that he never expected to do so. 29 December 1882] – 23 February 1945), nicknamed the Comrade Count, was a Russian and Soviet writer who wrote in many genres but specialized in science fiction and historical novels. Do I go to happiness? reputation as pianist and in 1923 wrote ballet, Ajanta's Frescoes, for Pavlova, who prod. A.N. Tolstoy was credited by Counsellor Smirnov, a Soviet prosecution lawyer at the Nuremberg Trials, of being the first person to 'ascertain without reasonable doubt' the use of gas vans by the Nazis to commit genocide. The ecclesiastical court, in granting a divorce, ruled that the guilty wife should never be allowed to remarry. His mother was a grand-niece of Decembrist Nikolay Turgenev and a relative of the renowned Russian writer Ivan Turgenev. In 1861 he personally gathered all of his peasants together, read them the 1961 … If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intended article. He was essentially a liberal humanist at this impressionable stage of his life and thought Socialist promises too absurd for contemplation. He was a natural storyteller and many of his works are purely entertaining. əlyĭksyā` nyĭkəlī`əvĭch təlstoi`), 1883–1945, Russian writer.He was distantly related to Leo Tolstoy Tolstoy, Leo, Count, Rus. 'You certainly ought to be the one to carry on the old tradition of the literary, "nest of gentlefolk,"' Tolstoy, he added, should achieve a suitable style and write a massive epic. 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